Thursday, 7 March 2013

Social Problem

Social Problems Among Higher Institutions In Malaysia

       A social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Everyone would agree about some social problems, such as murders and DWI traffic deaths. Other social problems may be viewed as such by certain groups of people. Teenagers who play loud music in a public park obviously do not view it as a problem, but some other people may consider it an undesirable social condition. Some nonsmokers view smoking as an undesirable social condition that should be banned or restricted in public buildings.

    Every newspaper is filled with stories about undesirable social conditions. Examples include crime, violence, drug abuse, and environmental problems. Such 
social problems can be found at the local, state, national and international levels. 

        There are many social problems that teenagers go threw.  Drugs and Teenagers Drug use is the increasing problem among teenagers in today’s high schools. Most drug use begins in the preteen and teenage years, these years most crucial in the maturation process. During these years adolescents are faced with difficult tasks of discovering their self identity, clarifying their sexual roles, assenting independence, learning to cope with authority and searching for goals that would give their lives meaning. Drugs are readily, adolescents are curious and venerable, and there is peer pressure to experiment, and there us a temptation to escape from conflicts. The use of drugs by teenagers is the result of a combination of factors such as peer pressure, curiosity, and availability. Drugs addiction among adolescents in turn leads to depression and suicide. 

       One of the most important reasons of teenage drug usage is peer pressure. Peer pressure represents social influences that effect adolescents, it can have a positive or 
a negative effect, depending on person’s social group and one can follow one path of the other. We are greatly influenced by the people around us.

     According to the lecturer from Faculty of Leadership and Management (FKP), Islamic Science University of Malaysia (USIM), Madam MarinaMuneera Abdul Muttalib said that, in today’s schools drugs are very common, peer pressure usually is the reason for their usage. If the people in the social group use drugs there will be pressure a direct or indirect pressure from them. A person may be offered to try drugs, which is direct pressure. Indirect pressure is when someone sees everyone around him using drugs and he might think that there is nothing wrong with using drugs. Person might try drugs just to fit in the social norms, even if a person had no intentions of using drugs one might do it just to be considered “cool” by his friends. 

        Today drugs are considered to be an acceptable social phenomenon by many teenagers. Here is a personal example of drug use from a teenager, “When I started using, was only on weekends, at parties. I used drugs ‘recreationally’ and therefore thought I had no addiction problem. I used drugs like nicotine, marijuana or LSD to be happy or to have fun. I needed drugs. I kept using drugs, I used drugs like marijuana to fit socially. I had problems in my life, emotionally, that drugs only seemed to solve. Drugs made my problems worse. I started snorting cocaine. I injected heroin into my veins. I almost died. I was addicted.”

      In today’s highs schools the availability and variety of drugs is widespread. There is a demand for drugs and the supply is plentiful. Since drugs are so easy accessible, a natural interest in them may develop. Many teenagers today believe that the first use of drugs is safe. However even though there is no instant addiction with the first try, youngsters tend to experiment further. Soon a person could actively seek the euphoric effects of drugs. Drug addiction is the result of intense preoccupation with the dicer to experience the mental and bodily changes with drug use. The final and the most disastrous stage are when a person needs drugs in order to function adequately. Therefore availability, curiosity and experimentation could result in drug addiction among teenagers. 

      The problems of teenage drug use, depression and suicide are evident in our society. These are very real and threatening issues that have to be dealt with. Going into the 21st century we have to face to problems of our future generations. There are many non-profitable organizations that help teenagers to cope with drug use. There are help lines, community services that offer information about drugs, and individual counseling is available almost in every education institution. There is help available to those who seek it.

     Unplanned pregnancy and the contraction of sexually transmitted diseases continue to be prevalent problems among adolescents. These problems often result in adverse health, social, and economic consequences for teenagers and their families. 

      Currently, there is little practice-based information concerning interventions designed to improve communication comfort about sexually related issueswithin families, especially between parents and their adolescents. Adolescents often engage in a wide range of high-risk sexual behaviors that can result in adverse health, social, and economic consequences for themselves and their families. Many of the programs serving teens and their families do not utilize social learning or other similar approaches to facilitate effective communication about sex between parents and their adolescents. In addition, many programs do not emphasize effective familial communication about adolescent sexuality, specifically the prevention of pregnancy and STIs, and this lack of attention may explain why changes in adolescents’ knowledge, attitudes, and skills have not always resulted in corresponding changes in their risk-taking sexual behaviors. 

         For the conclusion, one of the most important goals is to prevent children from
violating any further so they can become responsible and successful adults. The second most important goal is to protect society from the criminal acts of children. Parents need to teach children self-control by monitoring the child’s behavior, recognizing the different behaviors when they occur, and punishing those which are unacceptable. Through education, treatment, and affection, prevention of criminal acts reaches juveniles and assists them into a healthier and better life. To be able to use these components at the earliest stage possible is to keep these teenagers away from ever entering the juvenile justice.

          The first has already been mentioned and deals with “toughening up” and placing juveniles in adult courts. The removing offenders from society for longer 
periods of time will reduce crime. Those who have not committed a serious crime will come to the realization of the possible punishments such as life in prison, the death penalty, and others. Violent offenders would be less likely to repeat their crimes by learning from their first lesson.

11 Tips for Quitting Smoking

1. Commit Thyself Fully. 

In the quits that failed, I was only half into it. I told myself I wanted to quit, but I always felt in the back of my mind that I’d fail. I didn’t write anything down, I didn’t tell everybody (maybe my wife, but just her). This time, I wrote it down. I wrote down a plan. I blogged about it. I made a vow to my daughter. I told family and friends I was quitting. I went online and joined a quit forum. I had rewards. Many of these will be in the following tips, but the point is that I fully committed, and there was no turning back. I didn’t make it easy for myself to fail.

2. Make a Plan

You can’t just up and say, “I’m gonna quit today.” You have to prepare yourself. Plan it out. Have a system of rewards, a support system, a person to call if you’re in trouble. Write down what you’ll do when you get an urge. Print it out. Post it up on your wall, at home and at work. If you wait until you get the urge to figure out what you’re going to do, you’ve already lost. You have to be ready when those urges come.

3. Know Your Motivation. 

When the urge comes, your mind will rationalize. “What’s the harm?” And you’ll forget why you’re doing this. Know why you’re doing this BEFORE that urge comes. Is it for your kids? For your wife? For you health? So you can run? Because the girl you like doesn’t like smokers? Have a very good reason or reasons for quitting. List them out. Print them out. Put it on a wall. And remind yourself of those reasons every day, every urge.

4. Not One Puff, Ever (N.O.P.E.). 

The mind is a tricky thing. It will tell you that one cigarette won’t hurt. And it’s hard to argue with that logic, especially when you’re in the middle of an urge. And those urges are super hard to argue with. Don’t give in. Tell yourself, before the urges come, that you will not smoke a single puff, ever again. Because the truth is, that one puff WILL hurt. One puff leads to a second, and a third, and soon you’re not quitting, you’re smoking. Don’t fool yourself. A single puff will almost always lead to a recession. DO NOT TAKE A SINGLE PUFF!

5. Join a Forum

One of the things that helped the most in this quit was an online forum for quitters ( … you don’t feel so alone when you’re miserable. Misery loves company, after all. Go online, introduce yourself, get to know the others who are going through the exact same thing, post about your crappy experience, and read about others who are even worse than you. Best rule: Post Before You Smoke. If you set this rule and stick to it, you will make it through your urge. Others will talk you through it. And they’ll celebrate with you when you make it through your first day, day 2, 3, and 4, week 1 and beyond. It’s great fun.

6. Reward Yourself

Set up a plan for your rewards. Definitely reward yourself after the first day, and the second, and the third. You can do the fourth if you want, but definitely after Week 1 and Week2. And month 1, and month 2. And 6 months and a year. Make them good rewards, that you’ll look forward to: CDs, books, DVDs, T-shirts, shoes, a massage, a bike, a dinner out at your favorite restaurant, a hotel stay … whatever you can afford. Even better: take whatever you would have spent on smoking each day, and put it in a jar. This is your Rewards Jar. Go crazy! Celebrate your every success! You deserve it.

7. Delay

If you have an urge, wait. Do the following things: take 10 deep breaths. Drink water. Eat a snack (at first it was candy and gum, then I switched to healthier stuff like carrots and frozen grapes and pretzels). Call your support person. Post on your smoking cessation forum. Exercise. DO WHATEVER IT TAKES, BUT DELAY, DELAY, DELAY. You will make it through it, and the urge will go away. When it does, celebrate! Take it one urge at a time, and you can do it.

8. Replace Negative Habits with Positive Ones

What do you do when you’re stressed? If you currently react to stress with a cigarette, you’ll need to find something else to do. Deep breathing, self massage of my neck and shoulders, and exercise have worked wonders for me. Other habits, such as what you do first thing in the morning, or what you do in the car, or wherever you usually smoke, should be replaced with better, more positive ones. Running has been my best positive habit, altho I have a few others that replaced smoking.

9. Make it Through Hell Week, then Heck Week, and You’re Golden

The hardest part of quitting is the first two days. If you can get past that, you’ve passed the nicotine withdrawal stage, and the rest is mostly mental. But all of the first week is hell. Which is why it’s called Hell Week. After that, it begins to get easier. Second week is Heck Week, and is still difficult, but not nearly as hellish as the first. After that, it was smooth sailing for me. I just had to deal with an occasional strong urge, but the rest of the urges were light, and I felt confident I could make it through anything.

10. If You Fall, Get Up. And Learn From Your Mistakes. 

Yes, we all fail. That does not mean we are failures, or that we can never succeed. If you fall, it’s not the end of the world. Get up, brush yourself off, and try again. I failed numerous times before succeeding. But you know what? Each of those failures taught me something. Well, sometimes I repeated the same mistakes several times, but eventually I learned. Figure out what your obstacles to success are, and plan to overcome them in your next quit. And don’t wait a few months until your next quit. Give yourself a few days to plan and prepare, commit fully to it, and go for it!

11. Think Positive.

This is the most important tip of all. I saved it for last. If you have a positive, can-do attitude, as corny as it may sound, you will succeed. Trust me. It works. Tell yourself that you can do it, and you will. Tell yourself that you can’t do it, and you definitely won’t. When things get rough, think positive! You CAN make it through the urge. You CAN make it through Hell Week. And you can. I did. So have millions of others. We are no better than you. (In my case, worse.)

The Idea of Anorexia Nervosa

What is anorexia nervosa??

Eating disorder characterized by immoderate food restriction and irrational fear of gaining weight, as well as a distorted body self-perception. Anorexia nervosa is an  It typically involves excessive weight loss and is usually found more in females than in males. Due to the fear of gaining weight, people with this disorder restrict the amount of food they consume. This restriction of food intake causes metabolic and hormonal disorders. Outside of medical literature, the terms anorexia nervosa and anorexia are often used interchangeably. However, anorexia is simply a medical term for lack of appetite, and people with anorexia nervosa do not in fact, lose their appetites. Anorexia nervosa has many complicated implications and may be thought of as a lifelong illness that may never be truly cured, but only managed over time. Patients suffering from Anorexia nervosa may experience dizziness, headaches, drowsiness and a lack of energy.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by low body weight, inappropriate eating habits, obsession with having a thin figure, and the fear of gaining weight. It is often coupled with a distorted self image which may be maintained by various cognitive biases that alter how the affected individual evaluates and thinks about her or his body, food and eating.Those suffering from anorexia often view themselves as "too fat" even if they are already underweight.They may practice repetitive weighing, measuring, and mirror gazing, alongside other obsessive actions to make sure they are still thin, a common practice known as "body checking".

Anorexia nervosa most often has its onset in adolescence and is more prevalent among adolescent females than adolescent males. However, more recent studies show the onset age has decreased from an average of 13 to 17 years of age to 9 to 12. While it can affectmen and women of any age, and socioeconomic and cultural background, anorexia nervosa occurs in ten times more females than males.

People with anorexia nervosa continue to feel hunger, but they deny themselves all but very small quantities of food.The average caloric intake of a person with anorexia nervosa is 600–800 calories per day, but extreme cases of complete self-starvation are known. It is a serious mental illness with a high incidence of comorbidity and similarly high mortality rates to serious psychiatric disorders. People suffering from anorexia have extremely high levels of ghrelin (the hunger hormone that signals a physiological desire for food) in their blood. The high levels of ghrelin suggests that their bodies are trying to desperately switch the hunger aspect on; however, that hunger call is being suppressed, ignored, or overridden. 

Teenage Stress

The idea about  teenagers 

Teenagers stress.....

Babies stress.....

Any adult who doubts that teenage stress is a real problem affecting a large number of teenagers, only needs to cast their mind back to their own teenage years and recall their own experiences to realize how prevalent teenage stress is, and how difficult it can be. In recent years, the amount of stress in young people’s lives seems to be increasing, and stress seems to be present in their lives earlier and earlier. Recent survey results show that one third of all teenagers experience stress at least once per week.

Given the near of determining what normal teenage behavior is, it can be difficult, to say the least, to recognize the onset of teenage stress. impossibility The fact that teenagers are particularly reluctant to ask for help, makes it very important to detect the signs, both physical and emotional, of behavior which indicates some form of stress. These can include obvious physical signs such as headaches and nausea, and less obvious, but equally important emotional ones such as feelings of uneaseiness, or not having fun, or even more obvious symptoms like edginess and even anger.

The causes of teenage stress may appear trivial by comparison to the stresses which we experience as adults, which are associated with our responsibilites. However, to teenagers their suffering is very real, and can be very difficult to deal with. The good news is that, with the right encouragement, teenagers’ ability to cope with the stresses in their lives can be improved enormously. The benefits of being able to do so can be far reaching and long lasting, since the habits learned in adolesence carry through well into adult life.

The first thing to learn is how to avoid a build up of stress in the first place, and this can be accomplished by following some simple, yet effective guidelines. These include eating right, getting enough sleep, avoiding drugs, alcohol, tobacco, and excess caffeine. Encouraging teenagers to spend time in activities which they actually enjoy, whether it’s reading, writing, music, or sports, will also allow them to be removed from constant sources of stress, like cell phones, email, IM, texting, and social media. It should also allow them to relax, and prevent both the reality and the perception of their time being over committed.

The more that teenagers realize that there is a network to help them through their problems, the easier it can be for them to learn how to cope. That way, they can learn to talk openly about the cause of their stress, and as a result, explore potential cures and remedies which might help. Typically, they need to know that adults will keep the lines of communication open, so that they can make use of them when the need arises.

Of course, this need will always arise when you least expect it, and when you are least ready to deal with it. However, that’s when it really matters to be there for them. And, to paraphrase, the 3 rules of dealing with teenage stress for you as an adult can be summarized as: listen, listen, and listen. It’s your opportunity to act as a model for them to emulate, by listening in a way which provides support and encouragement.